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Affirmative action lawyers

For federal contractors and subcontractors, affirmative action must be taken by covered employers to recruit and advance qualified minorities, women, persons with disabilities, and covered veterans.
Affirmative actions include training programs, outreach efforts, and other positive steps.
These procedures should be incorporated into the company’s written personnel policies.
Employers with written affirmative action programs must implement them, keep them on file and update them annually.

More on Affirmative action law

Alternative dispute resolution lawyers

The use of ADR early in a case can result in the more efficient, cost-effective resolution of disputes with greater satisfaction to the parties. A great majority of the civil cases, including marital dissolutions (divorces), filed in several state courts are settled by using ADR.

Alternative Dispute Resolution ("ADR") processes are alternative methods of helping people resolve legal problems before going to court. ADR involves an independent third person, called a "neutral" who tries to help resolve or narrow the areas of conflict. 

The use of ADR early in a case can result in the more efficient, cost-effective resolution of disputes with greater satisfaction to the parties. A great majority of the civil cases, including marital dissolutions (divorces), filed in several state courts are settled by using ADR.

Arbitration lawyers

Arbitral Institutions

  • Institutional Arbitration
    ICC Arbitration
    LCIA Arbitration
    ICDR Arbitration
    ICSID Arbitration
    OHADA Arbitration
    UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules

About Arbitration

  • Ad Hoc Arbitration
    International Disputes
    Investment Arbitration
    International Arbitration Rules
    International Arbitration Agreements
    Arbitration Lawyers
    International Arbitrators

Animal law lawyers

By Wikepedia: Animal law issues encompass a broad spectrum of approaches—from philosophical explorations of the rights of animals to pragmatic discussions about the rights of those who use animals, who has standing to sue when an animal is harmed in a way that violates the law, and what constitutes legal cruelty. Animal law permeates and affects most traditional areas of the law – including tort, contract, criminal and constitutional law.

Examples of this intersection include:
Animal custody disputes in divorce or separations.
Veterinary malpractice cases.
Housing disputes involving “no pets” policies and discrimination laws.
Damages cases involving the wrongful death or injury to a companion animal.
Enforceable trusts for companions being adopted by states across the country]
Criminal law encompassing domestic violence and anti-cruelty laws.

Animal law organizations

A growing number of state and local bar associations now have animal law committees.
The Animal Legal Defense Fund was founded by attorney Joyce Tischler in 1979 as the first organization dedicated to promoting the field of animal law and using the law to protect the lives and defend the interests of animals.
In the Swiss canton of Zurich an animal lawyer, Antoine Goetschel, is employed by the canton government to represent the interests of animals in animal cruelty cases.In this capacity, he attempts to ensure that the Swiss animal protection laws, which are among the strictest in the world, are correctly enforced.

Assault lawyers

At Common Law, an intentional act by one person that creates an apprehension in another of an imminent harmful or offensive contact.

An assault is carried out by a threat of bodily harm coupled with an apparent, present ability to cause the harm. It is both a crime and a tort and, therefore, may result in either criminal or civil liability. Generally, the common law definition is the same in criminal and Tort Law. There is, however, an additional Criminal Law category of assault consisting of an attempted but unsuccessful Battery.

Statutory definitions of assault in the various jurisdictions throughout the United States are not substantially different from the common-law definition.

Aviation law lawyers


Aviation law governs the operation of aircraft and the maintenance of aviation facilities. Both federal and state governments have enacted statutes and created administrative agencies to regulate air traffic.

Using its constitutional authority to regulate interstate and foreign commerce, Congress has enacted several federal laws pertaining to air navigation. 
The first  of these was the 1926 Air Commerce Act, which provided for the certification and registration of aircraft employed in interstate or foreign commerce, among other things.
The statute was amended in 1938 by the Civil Aeronautics Act  which created the "Civil Aeronautics Authority," a five member panel with the power to regulate all aspects of aviation within federal jurisdiction.
Later, a Civil Aeronautics Board replcaed the five-member panel, and most of its power was transferred to the Department of Commerce.

Congress passed the Federal Aviation Act  in 1958, establishing the Federal Aviation Administration .
Since then, several subsequent federal acts, including the Airport and Airway Development Act of 1970  and the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 , have further regulated aviation.

In the wake of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, Congress enacted the Aviation and Transportation Security Act of 2001 ,
which established a Transportation Security Administration  in the Department of Transportation (TSA). The TSA now resides in theDepartment of Homeland Security .

As a result of these developments, aviation is now for the most part governed by federal law.  Accordingly, states are prohibited from regulating rates, routes or services of any air carrier authorized under the Federal Aviation Act to provide interstate air transportation. States are not prohibited, however, from enacting their own laws consistent with federal laws, or from altering existing remedies under state law.

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Airplane crash lawsuits lawyers

Banking law lawyers

Commercial banking lawyers

Consumer banking lawyers

Mortgages lawyers

Legal systems in different countries, while having some concepts in common, employ different terminology. However, in general, a mortgage of property involves the following parties.

The borrower, known as the mortgagor, gives the mortgage to the lender, known as the mortgagee.


A mortgage lender is an investor that lends money secured by a mortgage on real estate.
In today's world, most lenders sell the loans they write on the secondary mortgage market.
When they sell the mortgage, they earn revenue called Service Release Premium.
Typically, the purpose of the loan is for the borrower to purchase that same real estate.
As the mortgagee, the lender has the right to sell the property to pay off the loan if the borrower fails to pay.

The mortgage runs with the land, so even if the borrower transfers the property to someone else, the mortgagee still has the right to sell it if the borrower fails to pay off the loan.

So that a buyer cannot unwittingly buy property subject to a mortgage, mortgages are registered or recorded against the title with a government office, as a public record. The borrower has the right to have the mortgage discharged from the title once the debt is paid.


A mortgagor is the borrower in a mortgage—he owes the obligation secured by the mortgage.
Generally, the debtor must meet the conditions of the underlying loan or other obligation and the conditions of the mortgage.
Otherwise, the debtor usually runs the risk of foreclosure of the mortgage by the creditor to recover the debt.
Typically the debtors will be the individual homeowners, landlords, or businesses who are purchasing their property by way of a loan.

Other participants

Because of the complicated legal exchange, or conveyance, of the property, one or both of the main participants are likely to require legal representation.
The agent used for conveyancing varies based on the jurisdiction.
In the English-speaking world this means either a general legal practitioner, i.e., an attorney or solicitor, or in jurisdictions influenced by English law, including South Africa, a (licensed) conveyancer.

In the U.S., real estate agents are the most common.
In civil law jurisdictions conveyancing is handled by civil law notaries.

Because of the complex nature of many markets the debtor may approach a mortgage broker or financial adviser to help him or her source an appropriate creditor, typically by finding the most competitive loan.
The debt instrument is, in civil law jurisdictions, referred to by some form of Latin hypotheca (e.g., Sp hipoteca, Fr hypothèque, Germ Hypothek), and the parties are known as hypothecator (borrower) and hypothecatee (lender).
A civil-law hypotheca is exactly equivalent to an English mortgage by legal charge or American lien-theory mortgage.

Bankruptcy lawyers

A tough economy has been overwhelming to many consumers and they are filing for consumer bankruptcy in increasing numbers. What once was discouraged as a negative stigma is now viewed as an opportunity to clear the slate and get help with a fresh start financially. Personal bankruptcy is the only answer in many individual cases. As hard as it may be to face, when financial conditions make it impossible to continue financially, it is time to call upon your consumer bankruptcy attorney. Deal with the problem now, get back on your feet and do better in the future.

Chapter 7 and Chapter 13 Bankruptcy

Of the many types of bankruptcy avenues available, two are most commonly used:

Bankruptcy Laws

The general laws for bankruptcy are federal laws, and filings go into the US Bankruptcy Court under District Courts. While federal laws determine the procedures for bankruptcy, the state laws determine property rights for the individual. Most bankruptcy cases are voluntary, but some are involuntary when pressed by creditors.

Going bankrupt offers a fresh start for individuals and businesses. Credit offers will reappear again shortly after bankruptcy and should be used wisely if at all. The negative to going bankrupt is that the action will appear on credit history records for ten years. As soon as the attorney is involved in filing for bankruptcy, the individual will be able to put a halt to creditor calls and harassment.

Personal bankruptcy lawyers

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